The GATT 1947 originally applied to agriculture, but it was incomplete, and the signatory States (or “Contracting Parties”) excluded this sector from the scope of the principles set out in the General Agreement. During the period 1947-1994, Members were allowed to apply for export subsidies for primary agricultural products and to impose import restrictions under certain conditions, so that major agricultural raw materials face trade barriers of an unusual magnitude in other product sectors. The road to a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system has therefore been long and difficult; and the negotiations were finally concluded during the Uruguay Round. Agriculture has been signed in WTO agreements and trade agreements (which were signed in 1994 and were signed on 1). January 1995) a special status, since the sector has a specific agreement, the Agreement on Agriculture, whose provisions prevail. In addition, certain provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) also concern agricultural production and trade. The same applies to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) with regard to the protection of geographical indications. In addition, the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture are complemented by the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and technical assistance mechanisms. The CAP is also affected by agricultural concessions granted to a large number of countries under several multilateral and bilateral agreements, as well as by unilateral derogations granted under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). These preferential agreements explain the high level of EU agricultural imports from developing countries (3.2.10, Table VI).

WTO information on agriculture, including notifications from WTO members Video: Use of AGIMS The 2003 CAP reform, which decoupled most of the existing direct aid, and subsequent sectoral reforms resulted in the transfer of most of the aid from the yellow box and blue box to the green box (€61.6 billion in 2016/2017, see table below). Aid under the Amber Box (AMS or aggregate measure of support) totalled 81 billion. At the beginning of the contract period, the EUR fell sharply to €6.9 billion in the period 2016-2017, even with successive waves of enlargement. This means that the European Union is largely respecting the commitments made in Marrakesh (€72.38 billion per year) for the AMS. In addition, the “blue box” reached €4.6 billion during the same registration period. At the 2013 WTO Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, ministers also agreed on a range of agriculture-related issues. Introduction to Agricultural Trade in the WTO Links to the Agricultural Part of the WTO Guide “Understanding the WTO” In principle, all WTO agreements and arrangements on trade in goods apply to agriculture, including the GATT 1994 and WTO agreements on issues such as customs valuation, import licensing procedures, pre-shipment inspections, emergency response measures, subsidies and technical barriers to trade. However, in the event of a conflict between those agreements and the Agreement on Agriculture, the provisions of the Agreement on Agriculture shall prevail. .

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Last Modified: outubro 17, 2021