GERMANY, the United Kingdom, France and Italy have agreed on the following conditions governing the transfer and the measures resulting therefrom, taking into account the agreement already concluded in principle on the cession of the Territory of The Sudetenland to Germany, and by this Agreement they are responsible for the measures necessary to ensure their implementation: The “guarantees” of Germany and Italy will only “guarantee” Czechoslovak neutrality if the demands of Hungary and Poland are met – that is, their guarantee will only be given when the division of Czechoslovakia has made further progress. It is to be feared that, by then, any guarantee, whether German, Italian or French and British, will have lost all meaning to which it may have been made. When Germany, France, Britain and Italy signed the Munich Accords in the early morning of September 30, 1938, the Nazis took control of the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, where ethnic Germans lived mainly along the Czech border. The treaty also allowed Germany to take control of Czechoslovakia, which it officially did on March 15, 1939. Remarkably, Czechoslovakia was not represented at the conference that decided the fate of that country. In retrospect, the deal is seen as a failed attempt to avoid war with Nazi Germany. To give him control of the regions where Sudeten Germans are in the minority, the means of the referendum (which was rejected as part of the Anglo-French proposals) were used. Have Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Daladier asked Hitler what the referendum was for and how he could expect a Sudeten German majority without intimidation, in areas where they are known as a minority? Elections and referendums under Hitler offer many examples of how they can be manipulated. September 29-30, 1938: Germany, Italy, Britain and France sign the Munich Accords, according to which Czechoslovakia must cede its border regions and defense zones (the so-called Sudetenland region) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these areas between 1 and 10 October 1938. Under the Munich Accords, the entire predominantly German territory in Czechoslovakia had to be handed over by 10 October.

Poland and Hungary occupied other parts of the country and after a few months, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist and what remained of Slovakia became a German puppet state. Later in the session, a pre-arranged deception was made to influence Chamberlain and exert negative pressure: one of Hitler`s assistants entered the room to inform Hitler that other Germans had been killed in Czechoslovakia, to which Hitler shouted in response: “I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be annihilated. [32] The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the Allies` demands. [32] Later that evening, Hitler worried that he had gone too far to pressure Chamberlain and called the chamberlain hotel suite and said he would agree to annex only the Sudetenland without plans in other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began evacuating ethnic Czechs from German-majority territories by September 26 at 8:00 a.m. .m. After pressure from Chamberlain, Hitler agreed that the ultimatum be set for October 1 (the same date that Operation Green was to begin). [37] Hitler then told Chamberlain that this was a concession he wanted to make to the prime minister as a “gift” out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain had been willing to move somewhat away from his previous position.

[37] Hitler went on to state that after the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would no longer have territorial claims over Czechoslovakia and would conclude a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia. [37] The slogan “About us, without us!” (Czech: O nás bez nás!) summarizes the feelings of the Czechoslovak people (now Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation required] With the handing over of the Sudetenland to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state has now been renamed) lost its defensible border with Germany and its fortifications. .

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Last Modified: outubro 14, 2021